1116 dating network

Henry died on 1 December 1135 after a week of illness.Despite his plans for Matilda, the King was succeeded by his nephew, Stephen of Blois, resulting in a period of civil war known as the Anarchy.Henry was the youngest of William and Matilda's four sons.Physically he resembled his older brothers Robert Curthose, Richard and William Rufus, being, as historian David Carpenter describes, "short, stocky and barrel-chested," with black hair.His father was William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy, who had invaded England in 1066 to become the King of England, establishing lands stretching into Wales.The invasion had created an Anglo-Norman elite, many with estates spread across both sides of the English Channel.Henry remained in Normandy and took up a role within Robert's court, possibly either because he was unwilling to side openly with William Rufus, or because Robert might have taken the opportunity to confiscate Henry's inherited money if he had tried to leave. William Rufus continued to put down resistance to his rule in England, but began to build a number of alliances against Robert with barons in Normandy and neighbouring Ponthieu.In late 1090 William Rufus encouraged Conan Pilatus, a powerful burgher in Rouen, to rebel against Robert; Conan was supported by most of Rouen and made appeals to the neighbouring ducal garrisons to switch allegiance as well.

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He supported the Cluniac order and played a major role in the selection of the senior clergy in England and Normandy.Robert, the eldest, despite being in armed rebellion against his father at the time of his death, received Normandy.The two brothers disagreed fundamentally over the inheritance, and Robert soon began to plan an invasion of England to seize the kingdom, helped by a rebellion by some of the leading nobles against William Rufus.Considered by contemporaries to be a harsh but effective ruler, Henry skilfully manipulated the barons in England and Normandy.In England, he drew on the existing Anglo-Saxon system of justice, local government and taxation, but also strengthened it with additional institutions, including the royal exchequer and itinerant justices.

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