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By 1965, hippies had become an established social group in the U.
S., and the movement eventually expanded to other countries, Hippie culture spread worldwide through a fusion of rock music, folk, blues, and psychedelic rock; it also found expression in literature, the dramatic arts, fashion, and the visual arts, including film, posters advertising rock concerts, and album covers.
In Greenwich Village in the early 1960s, New York City, young counterculture advocates were named hips because they were considered "in the know" or "cool", as opposed to being square.
In the April 27, 1961 issue of The Village Voice, "An open letter to JFK & Fidel Castro", Norman Mailer utilizes the term hippies, in questioning JFK's behavior.
Hippies opposed political and social orthodoxy, choosing a gentle and nondoctrinaire ideology that favored peace, love and personal freedom, Escapin' through the lily fields I came across an empty space It trembled and exploded Left a bus stop in its place The bus came by and I got on That's when it all began There was cowboy Neal At the wheel Of a bus to never-ever land During the late 1950s and early 1960s, novelist Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters lived communally in California.
The Beats adopted the term hip, and early hippies inherited the language and countercultural values of the Beat Generation.The term hippie first found popularity in San Francisco by Herb Caen, a journalist for the San Francisco Chronicle.The origins of the terms hip and hep are uncertain.Inspired by the works of Friedrich Nietzsche, Goethe, Hermann Hesse, and Eduard Baltzer, Wandervogel attracted thousands of young Germans who rejected the rapid trend toward urbanization and yearned for the pagan, back-to-nature spiritual life of their ancestors.During the first several decades of the 20th century, Germans settled around the United States, bringing the values of the Wandervogel with them.